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h > About > Grants Archives > Grants Contracts Manual: Appendix B-Definitions

Grants: Contracts Manual - Definitions

Terms marked with an asterisk (*) are as defined by the Armstrong Office of Sponsored Programs. The remaining terms have been taken from the Foundation Center's glossary (Copyright ©1995-1999 The Foundation Center)

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*Abstract: A short summary of a project or program including all pertinent aspects of the sponsored activity, a summary of the objectives and expected results. The abstract is usually less than 350 words and limited to one double spaced typed page.

Annual report: A voluntary report issued by a foundation or corporation that provides financial data and descriptions of its grantmaking activities. Annual reports vary in format from simple typewritten documents listing the year's grants to detailed publications that provide substantial information about the grantmaker's grantmaking programs.

Assets: The amount of capital or principal — money, stocks, bonds, real estate, or other resources — controlled by a foundation or corporate giving program. Generally, assets are invested and the resulting income is used to make grants.

Associates program: A fee-based membership program of the Foundation Center providing toll-free telephone reference, photocopy and fax service, and computer searches of Foundation Center databases.



Beneficiary: In philanthropic terms, the donee or grantee receiving funds from a foundation or corporate giving program is the beneficiary, although society benefits as well.

Bricks and Mortar: An informal term for grants for buildings or construction projects.



Capital support: Funds provided for endowment purposes, buildings, construction, or equipment, and including, for example, grants for "bricks and mortar."

CD-ROM: Acronym for Compact Disk-Read Only Memory. CD-ROMs are high-capacity computer disks that allow publishers and other information providers to distribute large amounts of information in a searchable format.

Challenge grant: A grant that is paid only if the donee organization is able to raise additional funds from other sources. Challenge grants are often used to stimulate giving from other donors.See also matching grant.

Community foundation: A 501(c)(3) organization that makes grants for charitable purposes in a specific community or region. The funds available to a community foundation are usually derived from many donors and held in an endowment that is independently administered; income earned by the endowment is then used to make grants. Although a community foundation may be classified by the IRS as a private foundation, most are classified as public charities and are thus eligible for maximum tax-deductible contributions from the general public. See also 501(c)(3);public charity.

Community fund: An organized community program which makes annual appeals to the general public for funds that are usually not retained in an endowment but are instead used for the ongoing operational support of local agencies. See also federated giving program.

Company-sponsored foundation (also referred to as a corporate foundation): A private foundation whose assets are derived primarily from the contributions of a for-profit business. While a company-sponsored foundation may maintain close ties with its parent company, it is an independent organization with its own endowment and as such is subject to the same rules and regulations as other private foundations. See also private foundation.

Cooperating Collection: A member of the Foundation Center's network of libraries, community foundations, and other nonprofit agencies that provides a core collection of Center publications in addition to a variety of supplementary materials and services in areas useful to grantseekers.

Cooperative venture: A joint effort between or among two or more grantmakers. Cooperative venture partners may share in funding responsibilities or contribute information and technical resources.

Corporate foundation: See company-sponsored foundation.

Corporate giving program: A grantmaking program established and administered within a for-profit corporation. Because corporate giving programs do not have separate endowments, their annual grant totals generally are directly related to company profits. Corporate giving programs are not subject to the same reporting requirements as corporate foundations.

*Cost sharing: see matching grant



DIALOG: An online database information service made available by Knight Ridder Information Services, Inc. The Foundation Center offers two large files on foundations and grants through DIALOG.

*Direct Costs: Includes all items that can be categorically identified and charged to the specific project, such as personnel, fringe benefits, consultants, subcontractors, travel, equipment, supplies and materials, communications, computer time, and publication charges.

Distribution committee: The committee responsible for making grant decisions. For community foundations, the distribution committee is intended to be broadly representative of the community served by the foundation.

Donee: The recipient of a grant. (Also known as the grantee or the beneficiary.)

Donor: An individual or organization that makes a grant or contribution to a donee. (Also known as the grantor.)



Employee matching grant: A contribution to a charitable organization by an employee that is matched by a similar contribution from his or her employer. Many corporations have employee matching-gift programs in higher education that encourage their employees to give to the college or university of their choice.

Endowment: Funds intended to be invested in perpetuity to provide income for continued support of a not-for-profit organization.

Expenditure responsibility: In general, when a private foundation makes a grant to an organization that is not classified by the IRS as a "public charity," the foundation is required by law to provide some assurance that the funds will be used for the intended charitable purposes. Special reports on such grants must be filed with the IRS. Most grantee organizations are public charities and many foundations do not make "expenditure responsibility" grants.



Family foundation: An independent private foundation whose funds are derived from members of a single family. Family members often serve as officers or board members of family foundations and have a significant role in their grantmaking decisions. See also operating foundationprivate foundationpublic charity.

Federated giving program: A joint fundraising effort usually administered by a nonprofit "umbrella" organization that in turn distributes the contributed funds to several nonprofit agencies. United Way and community chests or funds, the United Jewish Appeal and other religious appeals, the United Negro College Fund, and joint arts councils are examples of federated giving programs. See also community fund.

Field offices: The Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Cleveland, and San Francisco reference collections operated by the Foundation Center, all of which offer a wide variety of services and comprehensive collections of information on foundations and grants.

501(c)(3): The section of the tax code that defines nonprofit, charitable (as broadly defined), tax-exempt organizations; 501(c)(3) organizations are further defined as public charities, private operating foundations, and private non-operating foundations. See also operating foundation;private foundationpublic charity.

Form 990-PF: The public record information return that all private foundations are required by law to submit annually to the Internal Revenue Service.



General/operating support: A grant made to further the general purpose or work of an organization, rather than for a specific purpose or project; also called an unrestricted grant.

General purpose foundation: An independent private foundation that awards grants in many different fields of interest. See also special purpose foundation.

Grantee financial report: A report detailing how grant funds were used by an organization. Many corporate grantmakers require this kind of report from grantees. A financial report generally includes a listing of all expenditures from grant funds as well as an overall organizational financial report covering revenue and expenses, assets and liabilities.

Grassroots fundraising: Efforts to raise money from individuals or groups from the local community on a broad basis. Usually an organization's own constituents — people who live in the neighborhood served or clients of the agency's services — are the sources of these funds. Grassroots fundraising activities include membership drives, raffles, auctions, benefits, and a range of other activities.

Guidelines: Procedures set forth by a funder that grantseekers should follow when approaching a grantmaker.



Independent foundation: A grantmaking organization usually classified by the IRS as a private foundation. Independent foundations may also be known as family foundations, general purpose foundations, special purpose foundations, or private non-operating foundations. The Foundation Center places independent foundations and company-sponsored foundations in separate categories; however, federal law normally classifies both as private, non-operating foundations subject to the same rules and requirements. See also private foundation.

*Indirect costs: Costs that have been incurred for common or joint objectives of the university and the sponsored program, and which, therefore, cannot be identified specifically in reference to a particular project, such as building operations and maintenance, laboratory space, library service, utilities, and administrative services.

In-kind contribution: A contribution of equipment, supplies, or other tangible resource, as distinguished from a monetary grant. Some organizations may also donate the use of space or staff time as an in-kind contribution.

*IRB: (Institutional Review Board) A ten member body which reviews, approves or disapproves any research involving human subjects.



Matching grant: A grant that is made to match funds provided by another donor. See alsochallenge grantemployee matching gift.

Microfiche: Flat strips of microfilm. The Foundation Center collects and makes available foundation 990-PFs on microfiche mounted on aperture cards by the IRS.



Operating foundation: A 501(c)(3) organization classified by the IRS as a private foundation whose primary purpose is to conduct research, social welfare, or other programs determined by its governing body or establishment charter. An operating foundation may make grants, but the sum generally is small relative to the funds used for the foundation's own programs. See also 501(c)(3).

Operating support grant: A grant to cover the regular personnel, administrative, and miscellaneous expenses of an existing program or project. See also general/operating support.

Orientation: An introduction to available resources and fundraising research strategies presented by Foundation Center library staff. Supervisors at Cooperating Collections may conduct orientation sessions as well.



Payout requirement: The minimum amount that private foundations are required to expend for charitable purposes (including grants and, within certain limits, the administrative cost of making grants). In general, a private foundation must meet or exceed an annual payout requirement of five percent of the average market value of its total assets.

Private foundation: A nongovernmental, nonprofit organization with funds (usually from a single source, such as an individual, family, or corporation) and program managed by its own trustees or directors. Private foundations are established to maintain or aid social, educational, religious, or other charitable activities serving the common welfare, primarily through the making of grants. See also 501(c)(3)public charity.

Program amount: Funds that are expended to support a particular program administered internally by a foundation or corporate giving program.

Program officer: A staff member of a foundation who reviews grant proposals and processes applications for the board of trustees. Only a small percentage of foundations have program officers.

Program-related investment (PRI): A loan or other investment (as distinguished from a grant) made by a foundation to another organization for a project related to the foundation's philanthropic purposes and interests.

Proposal: A written application, often accompanied by supporting documents, submitted to a foundation or corporate giving program in requesting a grant. Most foundations and corporations do not use printed application forms but instead require written proposals; others prefer preliminary letters of inquiry prior to a formal proposal. Consult published guidelines.

Public charity: A nonprofit organization that qualifies for tax-exempt status under section 501(c)(3) of the IRS code. Public charities are the recipients of most foundation and corporate grants. Some public charities also make grants. Public charities are eligible for maximum income tax-deductible contributions from the public and are not subject to the same rules and restrictions as private foundations. Some are also referred to as "public foundations" or "publicly supported organizations" and may use the term "foundation" in their names. See also 501(c)(3)private foundation.



Qualifying distributions: Expenditures of a private foundation made to satisfy its annual payout requirement. These can include grants, reasonable administrative expenses, set-asides, loans and program-related investments, and amounts paid to acquire assets used directly in carrying out tax-exempt purposes.

Query letter: A brief letter outlining an organization's activities and its request for funding that is sent to a potential grantmaker in order to determine whether it would be appropriate to submit a full grant proposal. Many grantmakers prefer to be contacted in this way before receiving a full proposal.



*Research: "The Code of Federal Regulations defines research as "...a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or to contribute to generalized knowledge."

RFP: An acronym for Request for Proposal. When the government issues a new contract or grant program, it sends out RFPs to agencies that might be qualified to participate. The RFP lists project specifications and application procedures. While a few foundations occasionally use RFPs in specific fields, most prefer to consider proposals that are initiated by applicants.



*Scholarship: any activity "of critical, systematic investigation in one or more fields and the submission of one's findings for criticism by professional peers and the public through published writings, lectures, or other modes of presentation."

Seed money: A grant or contribution used to start a new project or organization. Seed grants may cover salaries and other operating expenses of a new project.

Set-asides: Funds set aside by a foundation for a specific purpose or project that are counted as qualifying distributions toward the foundation's annual payout requirement. Amounts for the project must be paid within five years of the first set-aside.

Special purpose foundation: A private foundation that focuses its grantmaking activities in one or a few areas of interest. See also general purpose foundation.

Sponsorship: Affiliation with an existing nonprofit organization for the purpose of receiving grants. Grantseekers may either apply for federal tax-exempt status or affiliate with a nonprofit sponsor.



Tax-exempt: Refers to organizations that do not have to pay taxes such as federal or state corporate tax or state sales tax. Individuals who make donations to such organizations may be able to deduct these contributions from their income tax.

Technical assistance: Operational or management assistance given to nonprofit organizations. It can include fundraising assistance, budgeting and financial planning, program planning, legal advice, marketing, and other aids to management. Assistance may be offered directly by the staff of a foundation or corporation, or it may be provided in the form of a grant to pay for the services of an outside consultant. See also in-kind contributions.

Trustee: A foundation board member or officer who helps make decisions about how grant monies are spent. Depending on whether the foundation has paid staff, trustees may take a more or less active role in running its affairs.