Bylaws of Armstrong Faculty Senate

ARTICLE I. Senate Jurisdiction
The Armstrong Faculty Senate shall make, subject to the approval of the President of the University, statutes, rules, and regulations for the joint effort of governance; provide such committees as may be required to support governance; prescribe academic regulations regarding admission, suspension, expulsion, classes, courses of study, and requirements for graduation; and make such regulations as may be necessary or proper for the maintenance of high educational standards. A copy of the statutes, rules and regulations made by the Faculty Senate shall be filed with the Chancellor of the University System of Georgia. The Faculty Senate shall also have primary responsibility for those aspects of student life which relate to the educational process, subject to the approval of the President of the University (BOR Minutes, 1986-87, p. 333).

ARTICLE II. Duties of the Senate

SECTION A. Coordinate the activities of the Standing Committees of the Senate by appointing faculty to these committees and by responding to recommendations from these committees.

SECTION B. Advise the President of the University regarding overall allocation of resources in pursuit of the needs of students, the quality of their instruction, and the academic curriculum.

SECTION C. Monitor and make recommendations on the development of policies affecting the welfare of faculty.

SECTION D. Monitor and make recommendations on the development of policies affecting the academic mission of the university.

SECTION E. Act upon recommendations, institutional objectives, or other matters that shall be brought before it by Senators, Senate committees, the President of the University, vice presidents, or individual faculty members, and make recommendations to the President of the University.

SECTION F. Maintain a Faculty Senate website for regular and effective communication with the faculty. This website will include, but not be limited to, the following:
1. all agendas and minutes of Faculty Senate meetings
2. minutes of meetings of all Senate committees
3. recommendations from the Faculty Senate to the President of the University, and the President's responses to these recommendations
4. bills of the Senate and a record of their resolution, including a record of votes
5. the annual report of the Senate
6. a discussion board to allow faculty members to comment on Senate agenda items and actions
7. a resource page for university and system policies
8. links to appropriate online resources
9. the constitution and bylaws of the Faculty Senate
10. record of the amendments to the constitution and bylaws.

SECTION G. Monitor and update the constitution and bylaws of the Faculty Senate.

SECTION H. Monitor, review, and develop policies and procedures related to the curricular and co-curricular activities of students; these areas shall include:
1. admissions, dismissal, discipline, scholarship, classes, courses of study, and requirements for graduation
2. other aspects of student life as may be necessary and appropriate for the maintenance of high educational standards.

SECTION I. Report approved motions of the Faculty Senate to the President of the University in the form of recommendations, according to the following procedures:
1. Recommendations will be made in printed format and will be signed by the President of the Senate.
2. The President of the University will be invited to respond to these recommendations within thirty days.
3. The President of the University may approve, veto, remand to the Senate, or otherwise defer action on a Senate recommendation.
4. If a recommendation to the President of the University is vetoed, remanded, or otherwise deferred, the President will, through a written response, provide the Senate with the reason(s) for such action.
5. In response to a veto, the Senate may, accept the President's veto, or by a majority vote, revise and resubmit the recommendation, or by a two-thirds majority vote, resubmit the recommendation unchanged.
6. Following discussions with the President of the University, if no acceptable resolution can be reached, the Senate President, following an additional affirmative vote by a two-thirds majority of the Senate, may submit an appeal to the Board of Regents under Board of Regents Bylaws, Article VIII, with the understanding that the Board may choose not to hear the matter or address it further.

ARTICLE III. Membership of the Senate

SECTION A. Senators will be nominated and elected at the departmental level.

SECTION B. There will be forty Senators. Apportionment will be calculated using the Huntingdon-Hill formula with each department being represented by at least one Senator. For purposes of apportionment, the Library will be considered a department. Apportionment shall be based on the number of "Voting Members of the Faculty" as defined in Article I, SECTION C of the Constitution of the Faculty Senate on September 15 in the year of apportionment to be effective for the next election following apportionment.   In the event of a tie that precludes the calculation of 40 Senators, using the Huntington-Hill formula, a comparison of the total faculty population to the previous year will be made. If the population increases, the total number of Senators will increase to 41. If the population decreases, the total number of Senators will decrease to 39.    

SECTION C. Every five years or upon the creation or deletion of a department, the Senate's Constitution and Bylaws Committee shall review the composition of the Senate. As a result of this review, the committee may recommend a reapportionment of the forty seats to the Senate and propose a plan for modifying the length of terms to maintain appropriate representation during the period of redistribution.

SECTION D. Because of the responsibility attendant upon membership in the Senate, department chairpersons shall make every effort to arrange schedules to permit attendance of Senators at regular meetings of the Senate.

Approved May 2013

ARTICLE IV. Duties and Privileges of Senators

SECTION A. Senators shall have full privileges of the Senate, including but not limited to the following: rights to introduce resolutions, make motions, vote on motions, call for additional meetings, and other privileges as defined in the most current edition of Robert's Rules of Order.

SECTION B. Senators are required to attend all Senate meetings and to take part in the Senate's committee work assigned by the President of the Senate.

SECTION C. A Senator who is unable to attend a meeting must notify the Secretary of the Senate. That Senator's academic department will send the elected alternate, who will have full voting privileges. In such cases, because the department is represented, the Senator's absence will be considered "excused."

SECTION D. More than two unexcused absences per year from Senate meetings will be communicated to the Senator's department.

SECTION E. Senators will bring forth the concerns of their respective departments.

SECTION F. Senators will make regular reports of Senate actions to their departments' faculties.

ARTICLE V. Election of Senators

SECTION A. Senators shall hold office according to the following terms:
1. Senators shall be elected for a three-year term. Each department shall elect one alternate for each Senator with each alternate elected for a one-year term.
2. During the first three years of the Faculty Senate, staggered elections will be held so that one-third of the Senators will be newly elected each year.
3. Following a three-year wait period, Senators may be re-elected for another three-year term.
4. If a Senator is transferred from one academic department to another or is reassigned to an administrative position during his or her term of office that Senator's term shall end as of the date of the transfer.

SECTION B. By January 15 of each year, the Senate Elections Committee shall inform university departments of (1) the names of Senators whose terms will expire during the current academic year, and (2) any changes in apportionment as stated in the bylaws.

SECTION C. Department heads shall report the results of elections to the Senate Elections Committee not later than March 1 of each year.

ARTICLE VI. Duties and Responsibilities of the Officers of the Senate

SECTION A. The President shall
1. chair the Steering Committee of the Senate
2. sign the official copies of all Senate actions and communicate all formal actions to the President of the University
3. serve as the official representative of the faculty at university functions
4. appoint committees
5. form ad hoc committees
6. assign specific duties to officers of the Senate.

SECTION B. The Vice President shall
1. assist the President as a member of the Senate Steering Committee
2. schedule rooms needed for meetings of the Senate.

SECTION C. The Secretary shall
1. collect, publish, and distribute the agendas and approved minutes of the Senate and committees
2. create other documents on behalf of the Senate
3. maintain and ensure the accuracy of the information on the Senate website
4. take minutes and keep attendance records for all meetings of the Steering Committee and the Senate
5. notify departments of unexcused absences of Senators
6. keep records of all proceedings and file all committee reports
7. keep the Senate's official membership roll and call the roll where it is required
8. assign a number to each bill or resolution.

SECTION D. The Parliamentarian shall
1. ensure that Senate meetings are conducted in accordance with the most current edition of Robert's Rules of Order, the constitution, and the bylaws of the Faculty Senate
2. ensure that a quorum is maintained during Senate meetings
3. monitor Senate voting procedures for accuracy.

ARTICLE VII. Election of Officers
The Elections Committee will develop a slate of officers by April 1 of each year. Senators may make nominations to the Elections Committee. Senators-elect are eligible for nomination.

Senators who are completing the last year of their term(s) of service are eligible for nomination and service to Senate office.

ARTICLE VIII. Faculty Senate Meetings and Procedures

SECTION A. The Senate shall meet regularly in accordance with the following:
1. The Steering Committee shall determine the meeting schedule that will be provided to the faculty at the beginning of each academic year. Minutes of Senate meetings shall be made public no later than seven calendar days following Senate approval.
2. The Senate shall meet in open session, in space adequate for visitors, at least four times per semester during the academic year.

SECTION B. Except as determined by majority vote of the Senators (in which case the Senate would be in executive session, in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order), all meetings of the Senate shall be open for members of the general faculty to attend.

SECTION C. Faculty or staff members who are not Senators may be recognized to speak to specific agenda items at the discretion of the presiding officer.

SECTION D. Members of the faculty, individually or collectively, or through campus committees, are encouraged to submit items for consideration for the Faculty Senate meeting agenda to their elected representative or directly to the Steering Committee.

In addition, members of the Faculty Senate may raise suggestions for agenda items from the floor during meetings of the Faculty Senate.

SECTION E. Special Meetings of the Senate
Special meetings may be convened only to consider an item or items specific to the published purpose of the meeting. Typically such a meeting may be called to discuss any important matter that may arise between regularly scheduled meetings or that requires immediate action by the body before the next regularly scheduled meeting. Notice of the meeting must be published at least three working days before the meeting. Only business stated in the call for a special meeting may be transacted.

ARTICLE IX. Committees of the Senate
Each committee will develop a set of bylaws, have them approved by the Constitution and Bylaws Committee, and keep these bylaws current. Each committee shall conduct its business in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order. With the exception of the Steering Committee as noted below in Article IX, SECTION A, each committee shall elect a chair person from its voting membership.

Each will establish a schedule for meetings and submit it to the Secretary of the Senate.

SECTION A. Steering Committee
Charge: The President of the Senate shall convene a Steering Committee with the primary responsibility to facilitate the administration of the Senate.

Duties: The Committee sets the agenda for meetings. The committee meets with the President of the Senate before each regular meeting to determine the agenda. The agenda as agreed upon by the committee shall be sent by the Secretary of the Senate to the faculty prior to each meeting.

Membership: Membership is composed of the officers of the Senate. In addition, one Senator each from the College of Liberal Arts, the College of Education, the College of Health Professions, and the College of Science and Technology shall be appointed by the President of the Senate. The appointed members shall be confirmed by the Senate at its first meeting in the fall. The Parliamentarian shall serve as an ex officio, non-voting member. The President of the Senate shall chair this committee.

SECTION B. Senate Governance Committee
Charge: The committee will regularly review the Constitution and Bylaws and the charges of each committee of the Senate to keep them up-to-date and effective as well as developing and maintaining the nominations and election processes.
Duties: The Committee assures that the membership and work of each committee is consistent with the bylaws. The Committee can propose changes to committee and senate bylaws and inform the Senate of any change(s) in committee structure. This committee has the responsibility to propose revise, or eliminate Senate committees and standing committees of the Senate. The Senate must approve any changes in committees' bylaws.  This committee is responsible for maintaining the membership of each committee and the senate via the election processes.  These election duties include:

1. solicit nominations and accept nominations
2. determine willingness to serve
3. prepare slates of nominees
4. conduct university wide elections for the Standing Committees of the Senate
5. conduct elections for the Senate Committees
6. manage the election process
7. announce the results of elections
8. have the authority to call special elections.

Membership: The Senate Governance  Committee shall consist of six Senators elected by the Senate. The Parliamentarian will serve as an ex officio, non-voting member of the committee. No member of the Senate Governance Committee can be nominated for Senate office.

Approved  November 2013

ARTICLE X. Operational Framework for Standing Committees of the Senate

SECTION A. Standing Committees serve as agents of the faculty and its Senate and also as prime contributors of information and recommendations to the Senate. Committees will provide agendas at least five working days before a meeting and file approved minutes of each meeting with the Secretary of the Senate. Committees may be charged further by the President of the Senate for special reports on prescribed subjects.

SECTION B. Each committee will develop a set of bylaws, have them approved by the Constitution and Bylaws Committee, and keep these bylaws current. Each committee shall elect a chair person from its voting membership and conduct its business in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order.

SECTION C. All committees are charged to report to the Faculty Senate in writing at least once annually.

SECTION D. A committee may divide itself into working subcommittees in performing its duties and may appeal to the President of the Senate for the establishment of task forces, study panels, and the like to expedite its work.

SECTION E. In the conduct of its business, a committee may hold hearings and forums as well as joint meetings with other committees.

SECTION F. Members of the Standing Committees shall be elected according to procedures established by the Elections Committee. Faculty members are elected to committees for terms of two years, unless otherwise specified in the bylaws of the committee, and terms will be staggered so as to ensure satisfactory continuity. Faculty members shall not serve for more than two consecutive terms on any one committee.

SECTION G. The Senate Governance Committee will solicit nominations of Senators and conduct elections of Senators who will serve on standing committees. One Senator shall serve on each standing committee. The Senator will be a voting member of the committee but will not serve as the chair. This SECTION does not apply to the University Curriculum Committee.

SECTION H. Where committee structure provides, students shall serve on Standing Committees of the Senate for one-year terms.  Unless otherwise specified in the individual Bylaws of each Standing Committee of the Senate, 1) students shall have voting rights on all Standing Committees of the Senate which allow for student members; 2) undergraduate student members will be nominated by the Student Government Association, and graduate students will be nominated by the Graduate Student Council.

ARTICLE XI. Standing Committees of the Senate

SECTION A. Faculty Welfare Committee
Mission
The Faculty Welfare Committee will protect the welfare of the faculty and promote a sense of faculty community.

Duties
The committee shall consider issues and proposals related to faculty welfare including all matters relevant to faculty conditions of employment. The committee shall be involved in issues of policy and shall not consider individual cases. The committee shall make recommendations to the Senate for either information purposes or for action. The committee will make recommendations to the Senate concerning faculty evaluation policies and procedures after receiving reports from its Evaluation Subcommittee. The committee may promote various intellectual, educational and social activities that foster a sense of the faculty community.

Meetings
The committee shall meet three times per academic year or more as needed. The committee will determine meeting dates and times to be posted on the senate website.

Reports
Upon approval, the minutes of each Faculty Welfare Committee meeting will be submitted to the Secretary of the Faculty Senate. Furthermore, an annual summary report shall be submitted at the end of each academic year by the chair of the committee.

Membership
The committee shall be composed of nine faculty members, with two from the College of Liberal Arts, two from the College of Science and Technology, two from the College of Education, two from the College of Health Professions, and one from the Library. At least one member must hold graduate faculty status.

Approved December 2008

SECTION B. Student Success Committee
Mission
The Student Success Committee shall recommend policies on recruitment, admissions, advisement, and retention. It will also select award recipients for scholarships.

Duties
The committee will define and evaluate advisement goals, objectives and procedures as well as evaluate the relationship between academic advisement and retention. The committee will review both current and proposed policies concerning advisement and recommend changes to the Senate. The committee will additionally identify resource needs for advisement and retention and develop, assess, and help implement an annual advisement and retention plan. Committee work will also include the review of scholarship applications compiled by the Office of Financial Aid, and selection of award recipients. The committee will present the list of candidates for graduation.

Membership
The committee shall be composed of ten faculty representatives with at least two from each college, one undergraduate student, one graduate student, and seven ex officio non-voting members. The ex officio, non-voting members are the Director of Academic Orientation and Advisement, the Director of Multicultural Affairs, the Registrar, the Director of the Honors Program, the Director of Financial Aid, the Associate Vice President for Enrollment Management, and the assistant Vice President of Graduate Studies.

Meetings
This committee shall meet at least once per month during the Fall and Spring semesters. The committee will determine meeting dates and times to be posted on the senate website.

Reports
The minutes of each meeting will be provided to the Secretary of the Senate for posting. A separate report will be submitted to the faculty senate when a recommendation for action is made by this committee. At the end of each semester, the chair of the committee will submit to the Senate a summary of committee activities.

Approved January 2009

SECTION C. Academic Standards Committee
Mission
The Academic Standards Committee shall hear appeals on undergraduate academic admission and readmission and shall be responsible for recommending policies related to the Academic Honor Code and the Code of Conduct. The Academic Standards Committee shall consist of two Subcommittees: The Academic Appeals Subcommittee and the Student Conduct Subcommittee.

Membership
The Academic Standards Committee shall be composed of six (6) faculty members, with at least one faculty member from each of the four colleges; along with the following ex-officio, non-voting members: the Vice President for Student Affairs or his or her designee; the Vice-President for Academic Affairs or his or her designee; the Registrar or his or her designee; the University Appeals Officer; a representative from the Counseling Services Office; and four non-voting student members. The four students shall be the President and Vice-President of the Student Court, the President of the Student Government Association, and one student-at-large.

Reports
The committee will submit reports to the Secretary of the Faculty Senate. The decisions of the Academic Appeals Subcommittee will be available to Senators but are not subject to a vote of the body of the whole. The recommendations from the Student Conduct Subcommittee will be included in the materials to be considered and voted upon by the Senate as a whole.

Academic Appeals Subcommittee
Duties
The Academic Appeals Subcommittee shall be informed and make decisions regarding students' appeals for academic admission and readmission.

Membership
The Academic Appeals Subcommittee shall be composed of the six faculty members of the Academic Standards Committee along with the following ex-officio, non-voting members: the Vice President for Student Affairs or his or her designee, the Vice-President for Academic Affairs or his/her designee, the Registrar or his or her designee, the University Appeals Officer, and a representative from the Counseling Services Office. The representative from the Counseling Services Office may be the designee for the Vice-President for Student Affairs. The University Appeals Officer will serve as chair of this subcommittee so long as he/she is a full time member of the faculty.

Meetings
The Academic Appeals Subcommittee shall meet a minimum of six (6) times per academic year: the first weekday in August, two days before the start of fall semester classes, mid-November, two days before the start of spring semester classes, mid-April, and one day before the start of summer classes.

Reports
This subcommittee shall report a summary of their decisions to the Academic Standards Committee for informational purposes only.

Student Conduct Subcommittee
Duties
All rules and regulations relating to student conduct that are proposed by any University official, committee, or student group, and for which sanctions may be imposed in the name of the University, must be submitted to the Student Conduct Subcommittee for consideration and review prior to submission to the Faculty Senate and the student body. The Student Conduct Subcommittee will also select the members of the Student Court.

Membership
The Student Conduct Subcommittee shall be composed of the six (6) faculty members and the four (4) student members of the Academic Standards Committee, and the Vice-President of Student Affairs or his or her designee. The Vice-President of Student Affairs or his or her designee will have voting rights on this subcommittee.

Meetings
This subcommittee shall meet at the beginning of the academic year to determine student membership. Otherwise, this subcommittee will meet when necessary.

Reports
This subcommittee shall report their decisions and make recommendations to the Academic Standard Committee for their approval.

Approved March 2009

SECTION D. University Curriculum Committee
Charge: The University Curriculum Committee shall recommend to the Senate general curricular policies affecting the undergraduate academic programs offered by the university (e.g., core curriculum, university exit examinations, etc.).

Duties: The committee shall consider all proposals for new degree programs, majors, and/or minors, and make its recommendations to the Senate for action. The committee shall review all actions of the college curriculum committees, and shall be the organ of the university to which any college or autonomous department/program may make recommendations concerning undergraduate curricular matters. The committee may also make recommendations on curricular matters to the Graduate Affairs Committee. The committee will meet two weeks before each scheduled meeting of the Senate. The report of the University Curriculum Committee will be published at least five business days prior to the meeting of the Senate.

Membership: The University Curriculum Committee shall consist of thirteen members of the faculty plus the catalog editor (ex officio, non-voting). At the beginning of the first meeting of the academic year, the committee shall elect a chair by private ballot. The chair shall retain voting privileges. There shall be four faculty members from the College of Liberal Arts, two members from the College of Education, three members from the College of Health Professions, and four members from the College of Science and Technology. Reapportionment of the committee will be evaluated on the same schedule as for the Senate. Faculty terms shall be two years; no more than two successive terms shall be served by any person. Each college will elect their own representatives. No more than one member from any one department/program may serve at one time on the committee.

College Curriculum Committees: The College of Health Professions, the College of Liberal Arts, the College of Education and the College of Science and Technology shall each have a standing curriculum committee. Each College Curriculum Committee shall be composed of the dean of the college as chair and at least one faculty member from each department or program of the college to be elected by the department or program faculty.

Procedure for consideration of curriculum issues: The College Curriculum Committee, upon receiving recommendations on curricular issues from departments or programs within the respective college, shall take appropriate action and/or make recommendations to the University Curriculum Committee and/or Graduate Curriculum Committee as appropriate. Curricular issues are defined as issues pertaining to program or curriculum development, change, or implementation and issues that significantly and broadly affect the nature and quality of instruction in a program. Any action of the College Curriculum Committee shall be in accordance with the general curriculum policies established by the Faculty Senate, and shall be reviewed by the University Curriculum Committee and/or Graduate Curriculum Committee as appropriate. Any curricular matters that involve curricular policy or have a direct effect on departments or programs outside the college structure shall be forwarded, with recommendations, to the University Curriculum Committee and/or Graduate Curriculum Committee for action after notification of the affected departments. Curricular changes that affect certification programs (e.g., teacher certification) shall be reviewed by the curriculum committee of the college in which the certifying department or program resides prior to forwarding to the University Curriculum Committee for action.

The normal path for curricular issues is as follows: Issues related only to undergraduate programs proceed from the academic department to the College Curriculum Committee, then to the University Curriculum Committee and finally to the Faculty Senate. Issues related only to graduate programs proceed from the academic department to the College Curriculum Committee, to the Graduate Curriculum Committee and then to the Graduate Affairs Committee. Issues related to both undergraduate and graduate programs proceed from the academic department to the College Curriculum Committee, then to the University Curriculum Committee, then to the Graduate Curriculum Committee, and finally to the Graduate Affairs Committee.

SECTION E. Planning, Budget, and Facilities Committee
Mission
The Planning, Budget, and Facilities Committee shall advise the President of the University through the Senate on the issues related to the budget and planning processes where they affect the academic mission of the university.

Duties
Responsibilities include recommendations concerning strategic planning, budgeting (including long-range planning and the annual budget prior to its submission to the Board of Regents), as well as planning, development, and expansion of physical facilities when such endeavors affect the academic mission of the university.

Membership
The committee shall be composed of nine faculty representatives, one undergraduate and one graduate student, and various ex officio, non-voting members. The nine faculty representatives shall consist of two faculty representatives from each of the four colleges, and one from the Library, where at least one of the faculty representatives must hold graduate faculty status. Ex officio, non-voting members will be one department head, one dean, the Vice President for Academic Affairs, the Vice President for Student Affairs, the Vice President for Financial Services, and the Vice President of External Affairs.

Meetings
The committee shall meet at least four times each semester of the academic year and make recommendations to the Senate. The committee will determine meeting dates and times to be posted on the senate website.

Reports
The committee will, upon approval, provide minutes of each of its meetings to the Secretary of the Senate for posting. At the end of each semester, the chair of the committee will submit to the Senate a summary report of committee activities.

Approved November 2008

SECTION F. Educational Technology Committee
Mission
The Education Technology Committee will review policies and practices in technological infrastructure, and University policies governing the use of technology in collaboration with other University and senate committees to insure an optimal environment for the educational use of technology, to promote the use of technology in education, and to assist faculty in using technology for teaching, service, and scholarship.

Duties
The committee will provide coordination and communication among the various University committees and other committees of the Senate that are involved with technology use at Armstrong for the purpose of ensuring faculty awareness of technology applications related to teaching, learning, and professional development, as well as providing a faculty voice in the evolving policies related to such use.
Specifically, this committee will make recommendations regarding:
* Campus access to educational technology for students and faculty;
* University policies governing the use of technology and technology infrastructure of the University, in collaboration with the Committee on Information Technology;
* The use of technological tools in teaching and learning in collaboration with other appropriate committees. Student issues will be addressed by the Student Voice Subcommittee. This subcommittee will consist of the chair of the ETC, at least two other ETC committee members, and one graduate and one undergraduate student representative nominated by the SGA and the Graduate Student Council.
* The allocation of technology fee funds for the purchase and support of technology and software for academic and student use.

The committee will also communicate and coordinate with other appropriate university committees and departments to facilitate a coherent and coordinated implementation of education technology.
Student issues will be addressed by the Student Voice Subcommittee.  This subcommittee will consist of the chair of the ETC, at least two other ETC committee members, and one graduate and one undergraduate student representative nominated by the SGA and the Graduate Student Council.

Membership
The committee shall be composed of ten members, including seven faculty members with at least one member from each of the Colleges, and a representative from Computer and Information Services who shall serve as an ex-officio, non-voting member. One undergraduate and one graduate student, nominated by the Student Government Association and Graduate Student Council respectively, will serve as voting members of the Student Voice subcommittee.

Meetings
The Committee will meet at least twice each academic semester. The committee will determine meeting dates and time to be posted on the Senate website.

Reports
The committee will, upon approval, provide minutes of each of its meetings to the Secretary of the Senate for posting. At the end of each semester, the chair of the committee will submit to the Senate a summary report of committee activities.

Amended April 2013